Theme IV  New industrial estates

Content of this page:

  1. Innovative construction concepts for business parks to maximise land use and promote sustainability
  2. Guideline for commercial areas
  3. Example of limiting light pollution
  4. Small freight stations (as also theme II "Freight transport by rail")
  5. Commercial areas in the 2nd level
  6. Structural example for bridge buildings
  7. 2050: Bridge buildings connect neighbourhoods
  8. Public discussion of a planned industrial area
  9. Calculation of tree values and replacement plantings
  10. Topsoil is finite

1. Innovative construction concepts for business parks to maximise land use and promote sustainability

With the ever-increasing demand for commercial space and the limited space available, it is crucial to develop sustainable and innovative building concepts. This report presents innovative ideas for creating commercial areas in two levels with a bridge design to enable efficient use of limited space while preserving green areas.

Building concept
The proposed construction concept is to build another level above an existing commercial area. Bridge structures will be used to create another commercial area above the existing one. Light diffusers will be strategically integrated into the bridges to allow daylight down and create a pleasant working environment.
On- and off-ramps for trucks will be provided to access the upper levels. This ensures that the commercial units above can also be easily accessed. In addition, wide and future-proof segregated pedestrian and cycle paths are essential at all levels to ensure safety and comfort for pedestrians and cyclists.

Sustainability and green spaces
A crucial aspect of this building concept is the integration of large green spaces in the peripheral areas on both the upper and lower levels. These green spaces will be designed like small mountains to conceal the commercial facilities while creating an aesthetically pleasing environment. This will not only achieve efficient land use but also preserve sufficient green space.

Improving accessibility and mobility
To improve accessibility, the integration of accessible shuttle buses is crucial. These buses should connect businesses to the public transport system and provide reliable, weatherproof stops for employees. This encourages the use of public transport and reduces individual vehicle traffic.

The presented building concepts for business parks in two levels with bridge structures and integrated green spaces offer an innovative way to use limited space efficiently while creating a sustainable environment. Consideration of accessibility, efficient transport and sufficient green space helps to promote sustainable and future-oriented development. The implementation of these concepts requires careful planning, cooperation between different stakeholders and consideration of the needs of all parties involved.

2. Guideline for additional requirements for industrial estates

A new "Guideline for Commercial Areas" has been produced within this framework, with many questions that should be answered. It provides essential help in assessing whether a commercial area is appropriate in this location.

Guideline for industrial estates
Leitlinien für Gewerbegebiete_V 007 engl
Adobe Acrobat Dokument 1.3 MB

3. Example of limiting light pollution

Our light pollution by radiating light upwards disturbs and influences nature more and more. Therefore, here are the tips on how to do it with less light pollution.

Example of limiting light pollution
Leitlinien für Gewerbegebiete_V 007 Lich
Adobe Acrobat Dokument 315.4 KB

4. Small freight stations (as also on the page "New freight transport by rail")

The new freight stations or train formation facilities described cannot be built everywhere and the lorry should not have to travel so far, max. 50 km to the next freight station. Therefore, small simple freight stations are necessary. Building these small freight stations over the existing tracks or over a small passenger station saves a lot of space and facilitates lorry traffic by rail. In this way, sidings for truck traffic could also be made possible in rural areas.


Here are three videos of my own:

Video 1:

Video 2:

Video 3:

This video uses a LEGO model to show a small passenger station that has been converted into a small freight station. The freight track is led over the station. A loading and unloading station for lorries is built on top. The new digital goods wagon, see above, point 2, is pushed out of the train with a transfer table. The train rejoins and can continue its journey. Now the wagon is loaded and unloaded via the ends and can continue with the next train. This is a quick transfer point for the claim of more goods on the rail. A new improved version will follow shortly (Dec.2023).

Of course, this small freight station is expensive, but it is even more expensive if the truck has to drive the routes with personnel. It is a question of logistics and economic calculation.

5. commercial areas in the 2nd level

It is becoming increasingly difficult to meet the requirements for industrial estates. Furthermore, it is not justifiable today to destroy more farmland or other natural areas for industrial estates and the necessary compensation areas. It is becoming increasingly difficult to connect sufficient transport routes and more and more people are being affected by the individual traffic of employees and guests, local public transport (ÖPNV) and lorry traffic. Therefore, from an ecological point of view, we have to use our resources more sparingly.

This means that we have to use the space above the existing business parks. This is of course a challenge, but on the one hand, this space on the 2nd floor can also be sold or better leased and thus become more economical.

5.1 Example of use on level two with ramps

A very good example of creating more commercial space on a small plot. As described above on the second level with a ramp for trucks.

6. Structural example of bridge buildings

Here, two grand buildings bridging large areas.

Left: Pahlke Bad in Mönchengladbach Rheydt and right: Art Museum in Sao Paulo,

50 Years of Pahlkebad - Radio 90.1 (

(Art Museum in São Paulo, Brazil (

Also included are the Philharmonie in Hamburg and the Bosch Garage in Stuttgart.


As shown in the sketch on the right, commercial areas can be designed with a lot of greenery. Especially at the borders to other areas, the large halls can be somewhat hidden. In addition, these also provide areas for recreation for the employees. Trucks could access the upper floor via ramps.

For the lower lighting, so-called daylight spots can be installed with a diameter of several metres.

Discounters are planning to build flats above their own shops at various locations. This also helps to make better use of the scarce space in cities.

Here is an example: 

Here are the Google Maps images of Reuterstraße in Bonn, Germany from both sides and from above. Here is a multi-storey hotel above the 4-lane 565 motorway. 

7. 2050: Bridge buildings connect neighbourhoods

Attached is a design by the architects Jasper Architects showing how such bridge structures can connect residential quarters in a space-saving way and thus create new living space in the inner cities. In the same sense, commercial enterprises can also make better use of space and save ecologically valuable land. After all, space on earth is finite.The required traffic problems for these bridge buildings can be perfectly adapted with the rail-individual transport system. The lifts of the stops for barrier-free boarding and alighting are now led upwards, directly into these new buildings.

8. Public discussion of a planned industrial area

Presentation for a public discussion of a planned industrial area, Geilenkirchen-Lindern
Presentation for a public discussion on alternative use of a planned industrial area. In this presentation, the traffic problems in the surrounding area and in the industrial estate are presented. The presentation is in German, if you are interested in a translation, please contact us.
Vortag Gewerbegebiet Lindern 2024 Vers.
Adobe Acrobat Dokument 6.7 MB

9. Calculation of tree values and replacement plantings

A calculation from part of a new commercial area. Only 35 trees were calculated. The data were the diameter and the crown diameter. From this and from the data in the two links, the costs and the replacement plantings were calculated.


35 trees with a total of
6,104 years of life cost require

EUR 9.1 million
122,083 replacement trees on
180 ha planting area

When assessing new building land, the value of nature must therefore be assessed accordingly and included in the calculation. Here are important values for these calculations:

Value of the tree,
performance of the tree,
leaf area and number of leaves.
The value of the soil could not yet be determined.

Excerpt: Therefore, plant the oak in a place where there is no other tall tree or house shade within a radius of at least 15 meters. Young trees can be planted in spring or fall. Loosen the soil in the planting hole thoroughly.

10. Topsoil is finite


Our topsoil is important and also finite. The Federal Environment Agency shows us why:

The finite topsoil:


"The development of a one centimetre thick humus-rich soil layer can take between 100 and 300 years - but can be lost to erosion in a single heavy thunderstorm rain."

Link to a German website

Cost calculation for the creation of topsoil in 150 years
The topsoil is finite, according to the description of the Federal Environmental Agency. Now I have made a very rough calculation. According to this, the topsoil will be created in about 150 years and can be delivered.
Topsoil is created in a hall over the 150 years. This means that 3 generations are employed.
The cubic metre of topsoil then costs approx. 450,000 EUR.
Berechnung der Baumgrößen und Mutterbode
Adobe Acrobat Dokument 143.9 KB

If you find any errors, we are grateful for any advice.